The molecular formula is C16H19N3O5S•3H2O and the molecular weight is 419.45. The chemical structure is: Amoxicillin acts by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Lack of bacterial cell wall results in death due to lysis of bacteria. So amoxicillin is useful only for actively growing and cell wall synthesizing bacteria. Food does not interfere with absorption of amoxicillin. It crosses the placenta; small amounts are distributed into breast milk. Amoxicillin is excreted mainly by kidney and by hepatic metabolism. Its excretion can be delayed by concomitant administration of probenecid. Generic name: Amoxicillin (multiple manufacturers) Common brand name: Amoxil (Glaxo Smith Kline – U. S.) Popularity: Third most commonly prescribed drug between 2002 – 2007 (U. S.) Class: Penicillin antibiotic Treatment Uses – For treatment of ear, nose, throat, lower respiratory, skin or subcutaneous, and urinary tract or lower genitourinary infections, as well as tonsillitis. Prophylaxis (prevention) of infective endocarditis (IE) in high risk patients undergoing surgical or dental procedures. Amoxicillin is an available option to complete post exposure prophylaxis against anthrax after two to three weeks treatment with a first-line antibiotic. Has been effective for treatment of acute infective exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Amoxicillin had been used to treat gonorrhea, but antibiotic resistance has made it ineffective and no longer recommended. Used as part of a multi-drug regimen (including omeprazole and clarithromycin) for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (to reduce risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence). Either oral amoxicillin or azithromycin are preferred for treatment of chlamydial infections during pregnancy. For treatment of susceptible infections caused by streptococci, E. Amoxicillin is also used to treat Lyme disease, Typhoid Fever, post-infective arthritis, Whipple's disease, and as infective prophylaxis in premature rupture of membranes (PROM) during pregnancy.
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream. First, the drug needs to be introduced via some route of administration (oral, topical-dermal, etc.) and in a specific dosage form such as a tablet, capsule, solution and so on. In other situations, such as intravenous therapy, intramuscular injection, enteral nutrition and others, absorption is even more straightforward and there is less variability in absorption and bioavailability is often near 100%. It is considered that intravascular administration (e.g. IV) does not involve absorption, and there is no loss of drug. Absorption is a primary focus in drug development and medicinal chemistry, since the drug must be absorbed before any medicinal effects can take place. Moreover, the drug's pharmacokinetic profile can be easily and significantly changed by adjusting factors that affect absorption. In the most common situation, a tablet is ingested and passes through the esophagus to the stomach. Amoxicillin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. Amoxicillin is also used with other medications to treat stomach/intestinal ulcers caused by the bacteria H. Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually every 8 or 12 hours. Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Drink plenty of fluids while using this medication unless your doctor tells you otherwise. For the best effect, take this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, take this medication at the same time(s) every day.
Amoxicillin is a beta lactam antibiotic that is orally effective. After absorption it is metabolized ~30% by liver, which is also an active form. About 20% is bound to plasma proteins. It is excreted as active forms by kidney. Dose reduction is recommended for renal disease, but not with liver disease. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other beta-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin is.