Infants with congenital heart disease and left-to-right shunts may develop significant clinical symptoms of congestive heart failure in spite of therapy with digoxin and diuretics. We investigated the effects of β-blockade in infants with severe heart failure. =10) in comparison to 10 infants receiving additional β-blocker therapy. After 17 days on average β-blocker treated infants (propranolol:1,6 mg/kg/day) improved significantly with respect to Ross heart failure score (3.3±2.3 vs. 8.3±1.9, Additional propranolol treatment but not digoxin and diuretics alone can effectively reduce clinical symptoms of heart failure in infants with congenital heart disease, who suffer from increased neurohormonal activation. While once a first-line treatment for hypertension, the role for beta blockers was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line, as they do not perform as well as other drugs, particularly in the elderly, and evidence is increasing that the most frequently used beta blockers at usual doses carry an unacceptable risk of provoking type 2 diabetes. Propranolol is not recommended for the treatment of hypertension by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) because a higher rate of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke compared to an angiotensin receptor blocker was noted in one study. Propranolol works to inhibit the actions of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that enhances memory consolidation. In one small study individuals given propranolol immediately after trauma experienced fewer stress-related symptoms and lower rates of PTSD than respective control groups who did not receive the drug. Due to the fact that memories and their emotional content are reconsolidated in the hours after they are recalled/re-experienced, propranolol can also diminish the emotional impact of already formed memories; for this reason, it is also being studied in the treatment of specific phobias, such as arachnophobia, dental fear, and social phobia. Ethical and legal questions have been raised surrounding the use of propranolol-based medications for use as a "memory damper", including: altering memory-recalled evidence during an investigation, modifying behavioral response to past (albeit traumatic) experiences, the regulation of these drugs, and others. However, Hall and Carter have argued that many such objections are "based on wildly exaggerated and unrealistic scenarios that ignore the limited action of propranolol in affecting memory, underplay the debilitating impact that PTSD has on those who suffer from it, and fail to acknowledge the extent to which drugs like alcohol are already used for this purpose." Propranolol may be used to treat severe infantile hemangiomas (IHs).
Propranolol is also used to treat essential tremor, to decrease the heart rate in patients withBeta-blockers are contraindicated in patients with asthma, bradycardia and heart failure and should be. No large studies of older beta-blockers adequately assess mortality in heart failure. One study of propranolol N=158 showed a 27% reduction in mortality in.