Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse and Antabus) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol). Disulfiram works by inhibiting the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which means that many of the effects of a "hangover" are felt immediately after alcohol is consumed. "Disulfiram plus alcohol, even small amounts, produce flushing, throbbing in head and neck, throbbing headache, respiratory difficulty, nausea, copious vomiting, sweating, thirst, chest pain, palpitation, dyspnea, hyperventilation, tachycardia, hypotension, syncope, marked uneasiness, weakness, vertigo, blurred vision, and confusion. In severe reactions there may be respiratory depression, cardiovascular collapse, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, acute congestive heart failure, unconsciousness, convulsions, and death." In the body, alcohol is converted to acetaldehyde, which is then broken down by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. If the dehydrogenase enzyme is inhibited, acetaldehyde builds up and causes unpleasant effects. Disulfiram should be used in conjunction with counseling and support. Disulfiram has been studied as a possible treatment for cancer Under normal metabolism, alcohol is broken down in the liver by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde, which is then converted by the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase to a harmless acetic acid derivative (acetyl coenzyme A). Disulfiram (Antabuse) is perhaps the most widely used treatment for alcoholism in Finland. Normally, ethanol is converted into acetaldehyde and then acetic acid before being excreted from the body. Disulfiram prevents the oxidation process, causing acetaldehyde build-up. The reaction is often extremely pronounced, making alcohol consumption almost impossible. Even in small quantities, acetaldehyde is known to cause nausea, vomiting (including damage to the oesophagus), a burning sensation on the skin, flushing and shortness of breath, also known as a disulfiram or Antabuse reaction. Disulfiram is therefore acts as a deterrent against further drinking, as it does not alleviate the craving for alcohol itself. Disulfiram also has other effects, including inhibiting noradrenalin production. Dosage Disulfiram treatment can be commenced when the patient is no longer under the influence of alcohol. No alcohol should have been consumed in the 12-hour period preceding treatment.
Absorption of disulfiram from the gastrointestinal tract is rapid but incomplete and approximately 20% is excreted in the faeces. Because of its high lipid solubility, disulfiram is widely distributed and accumulated in various fat depots. Disulfiram is rapidly metabolised to diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), which is partly excreted as carbon disulfide in the expired air and is partly metabolised in the liver to Me-DDC. Me-DDC is metabolised further to the active metabolite Me-DTC (diethylthiocarbaminic acid methyl ester). The concentration of Me-DTC reaches its maximum after about four hours, but the maximum enzyme inhibiting effect (aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)) is first reached after three daily doses. The plasma half-life for Me-DTC is about ten hours, but the enzyme inhibiting effect of ALDH lasts considerably longer. The effect can thus persist for 7 to 14 days after discontinuation. This So Cal rehab fosters a regimented but respectful recovery environment, where teens learn how to live sober through plenty of 12-step meetings and life-skills classes—not to mention "equine-assisted psychotherapy" and mixed martial arts. Oceanside alumni praise flexible treatment which includes care for underlying mental health conditions, staff who go the extra mile, luxury amenities, and activities such as surfing and horseback riding. Alumni of The Clearing praise the non-12 step approach which focuses on "self-counseling skills" and "learning how to love yourself" while you heal in a historic, fully restored farmhouse surrounded by the natural beauty of San Juan Island. This laid-back Malibu beachfront rehab charts a holistic path to recovery, which suits the twenty- and thirtysomethings who come here—you just might have to clock a few extra miles on the sand to burn off Chef Monte’s hearty home-cooking.
Other Names Antabuse, DSF, tetraethylthiuram disulfide Drug Class Latency-Reversing Agents. Molecular Formula C10 H20 N2 S4. Registry Number 97-77-8. Feb 1, 2015. Antabuse disulfiram is an alcohol antagonist drug used in the. The half life of Antabuse is 60-120 hours and up to 20% of a single dose may.